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January 22, 2010

Social And Cultural Development Indonesia

Every life in this world depends on the ability to adapt to their environment in a broad sense. But unlike other life, human relationships with the environment actively. Humans do not simply rely on the generosity of the environment they live their lives like when Adam and Eve lived in the Garden of Eden. In meeting their needs by managing the environment and actively cultivate the resources in accordance with his taste. That's why humans develop habits that institutionalized in social structure and culture. Because of its ability to actively adapt to that, the man managed to position ourselves as being the highest rank in the earth and meet the world's most widely spreading.

On the other hand, the human ability to build relationships with their environment actively it has opened opportunities for the development of various forms of organization and culture to civilization. Social dynamics that have been realizing the cultural diversity of society and the world, both as a manifestation of social adaptation to local environmental groups as well as the speed of its development.


Social and cultural dynamics that struck the Indonesian community is no exception, although the broad spectrum and speed vary. Similarly, society and culture of Indonesia has grown rapidly in the past, although somewhat behind its development today when compared with developments in other developed countries. After all, society and the diverse culture of Indonesia has never experienced stagnation as the embodiment of active community response to the challenges arising from environmental changes in the broader sense as well as replacement of generations.

There are a number of forces that encourage the development of Indonesia's social culture. In categorical there are 2 forces that mmicu social change, First Instance, is the strength from within society itself (internal factor), such as change of generations and a variety of local discovery and engineering. Second, is the power from outside the community (external factor), such as the influence of contacts between cultures (culture contact), directly or dispersion (elements), cultural and environmental changes which in turn can spur social and cultural development of society who must rebuild lives them.

No matter how fast or slow development of social culture that hit, and the factor of any cause, any such changes will cause a reaction pros and cons of community or nation concerned. The size of the pros and cons of reactions that can threaten the establishment, and even can also lead to social disintegration, especially in a plural society with multiple cultures like Indonesia.


Indonesian society today is undergoing a period of transition is very powerful as a result of the demands of comprehensive reform. Who's reform demands that originate in national development activities that apply advanced technologies to accelerate their implementation. On the other hand, without realizing it, the application of advanced technology that requires reference to cultural values, social norms and new orientation. It is not surprising that the Indonesian people's diverse multi-cultural with it as if it had kelimbungan in restructuring the social order, politics and culture today.

Application of advanced technology

Application of advanced technologies to accelerate national pebangunan 32 years ago has demanded the development of the cultural values, social norms in addition to skills and employment skills dengn mental attitudes that support it. Application of advanced technologies that require costly major investments (capital intensive investment); large capital must be managed in a professional (management) in order to bring material benefits as optimal as possible, because it also requires skilled labor and professionals with orientation continues to pursue success (achievement orientation).

Without realizing it, the fact, has spurred the development of social order in all sectors of life which in turn has led to various reactions pros and cons among the people. In the process of socio-cultural development, usually only those who have a range of socio-political advantages, economic and technology that will come out as winners in the free competition. Consequently they are not ready to be displaced and worse off in life, and widen and deepen social inequalities which in turn can lead to social jealousy that increase the potential for conflict sosial.dalam plural society with a multi-culture.

Limitations of the environment (environment scarcity)

Application of advanced technology that is expensive tend to be exploitative and expansive in its implementation. To pursue material gains as optimal as possible, heavy machinery and the cost of expensive treatment, encourages employers to use it intensively without knowing the time. Clearing dhutan massively without knowing the time of day and night, as well as factory machinery must work continuously and mengoah raw materials into finished goods ready to throw the market. The fulfillment of the necessary raw materials has led to pressure on the environment which in turn threaten the lives of residents who were born, raised and developed in an environment of life on a massive explotasi.

In addition, the application of advanced technologies also tend to not recognize geographical boundaries of environmental, social and cultural and political. Where there are natural resources needed to accelerate industrial activity which is supported by modern equipment, there is also modern machinery imported and used regardless of the wisdom of the environment (ecological wisdom) the local population.

Socio-cultural inequality between rural and urban population is in turn also become one of the triggers the development of social norms and cultural values that befungsi as guidelines and terms of reference of rural populations who have nmampu profitably expand social networks. What is often forgotten is the collapse of old social institutions so that residents olahkehilangan as guidelines in conducting the activities. Even if the social institutions that still exist, but no longer functions in managing the day-to-day life pendudduk. As if Terah social paralysis occurs as in the case of hot mud in Sidoarjo, illegal logging by the city, the confiscation of timber felled without a clear legal reasons, control of land by those who are not eligible.

Social paralysis that has led to a protracted social conflict and continue with violent conflict or amuck.


A number of rules and regulations issued by the government to protect the rights and obligations of all citizens, such as monogamous Marriage Act, the recognition of human rights and gender equality and the recognition of the inaugural "personal, individual ownership" over the family fortune into force and affect the mental attitude of the population with all its consequences.


Powerful forces of change, but not realized by most people is education. Although education is an institution anywhere ssosial which primarily serves to prepare its members to be residents of a skilled and responsible to the cultivation and strengthening of social norms and values prevailing culture, but its side effect is open horizons and curiosity of students. Hence, education can be a force for social change are very large because learners foster creativity to develop innovations (innovation).

In addition to the innovative creativity that equip learners, educational success brought a person to pursue a path of open opportunities for social mobility is concerned. In turn, social mobility to affect social interaction patterns or the prevailing social structure. The principle of seniority is not limited to age, but also education and job seniority are applied in managing social relationships in society.

Thus, school education as an element of strength changes introduced from outside, in turn, become forces of change from within society that very potential. Even in a plural society of Indonesia in multi-culture, education has a dual function as a means of national integration that infuses mutual understanding and respect for fellow citizens regardless of origin and socio-cultural background, ethnicity, religious, regional and racial. Education schools also can function as a dampening the potential for conflict in a plural society with a multi kulurnya, if carried out properly and sustainably.

In addition to education, law enforcement is needed to menjain social justice and democratization of national life in the era of reform that triggered the socio-cultural perlembangan today. Most people do not realize the social impact of reforms, despite their vocal demands realignment of social life and state. Indeed reforms contain content that socio-cultural changes must be anticipated by the community readiness to accept innovations that often lead to uncertainty in the process.

Without the rule of law in a transparent and accountable, socio-cultural developments in Indonesia will produce a more severe social disaster, because the loss of public confidence will encourage them to act alone as the first symptom appears today. More berbahayalagi if social movements that characterized religious belief, such as fair queen penatian arrival and movement of purification (purification), which forbids all these innovations were considered a "starter" chaos.

Betapaun community must be ready to face the socio-cultural changes that diniati and became effective with the reforms that contain the meaning of progress toward improving the life of society and state.

By: Walteriano Janu

The writer is a psychology student UST Jogja.

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